25 Oct

The printmaking process

To understand this process we need to know first what an original print is and how it is made.

A print is a work of graphic art which has been conceived by the artist to be realized as an original work of art. Prints are produced by drawing or carving an image onto a hard surface (known as a matrix) such as a wood block, metal plate, or stone. This surface is then inked and the image is transferred to paper or another material by the application of pressure, thus creating an impression, or print. The printed image that results is the exact reverse of the image on the plate.

Unlike paintings or drawings, prints usually exist in multiple impressions, each of which has been created from the same inked plate. The set of identical impressions (prints) made from an individual matrix created by the artist, either working alone or in conjunction with a master printer are called an edition. The process of printing the edition is therefore just as important to the authenticity of a print as the act of inscribing the image onto the plate.

This long process makes me think of printmaking as alchemy: a long experimental process where all the elements and materials have to fit together on a perfect moment in order to transmute into something powerful and precious.

Metals and card boards become matrices, those receive ink that become stamps and fibers become a sheet of paper, paper scraps arranged together to create something new. This is a marvelous and incredible transmutation which is the guide of all my work.

I feel myself fascinated by the sudden effects that I found through this process. There are many accidents generated that I can incorporate to the pieces of art. The mystery of not knowing exactly the result I am going to obtain makes me feel completely caught, since it seems to me that materials are alive.

Prints fall into categories depending on their method of production, which can be several: etching, dry point, linocut, lithography, dry point, collagraph, screen print, etc. Within each category, there are a lot of techniques to achieve different effects.

I do mostly etchings on copper plates (I have a large collection listed on my etsy shop). Here is a brief description of that process:

Preparing the plates

Cut the plate to desire size · Bevel the edges · If it is unpolished, you have to polish the surface · Degrease it.

Varnish and biting a plate

Protect the back of the plate · Ground the plate with the desire technique (wax ground, white ground, rosin, etc.) · Prepare the acids · Etch the plate

Preparing the inks

Prepare the colors if needed · Depending on the color or type of ink, you need to adjust its viscosity

Proofs of state

Start printing! · We need to check if we are satisfied with the etched lines and tones (if not, we have to do it all over again!) · The amount of ink and colors · The pressure of the press · Size and type of paper

Preparing the paper

Cutting the paper by hand · Dampen it and take out the excess of water


Preparing the hot plate · Soften the tarlatan to wipe the ink on the plate


Preparing the registration for placing the plates on the press and print!

Drying and pressing

Left to dry · Place the prints between blotting paper and under pressure

Thank you for your interest in this technique I adore! You can find the finished pieces here in this section and in my etsy shop. You can also find more information, descriptions and glossary terms on these websites: magical secrets, ifpda, smidgeon press.

20 Oct

A Japanese technique

In 2011, i was researching about marbling techniques to decorate paper when i found a beautiful image of suminagashi. I was very impressed by the delicacy of the lines, clear and ethereal, very different from the marbling I knew.

Suminagashi means “floating ink” and is an ancient method of marbling paper developed in Japan.

I started looking for more about this technique and it was not easy! I found a small book and the contact of Mr. Kuroda in Japan (one of the experts on the subject), who kindly shared his knowledge with me for about a year.

I began to experiment a lot taking notes, trying papers, inks and brushes. This craft amazed me not only for its result in the paper but also for its magical, simple and meditative process. I felt like capturing the air or the soft movement of the water in a thin piece of paper.

Last year I had the great opportunity to visit in Japan, the place where this technique was born around 1000 years ago. I spent a day visiting Echizen, a small and remote village that has manufactured washi paper for centuries. It is a splendid and interesting place, where the techniques are passed from generation to generation within the same family. It was fascinating for me to see the dedication, patience and skills used for achieving high quality papers made entirely by hand.

In this beautiful and peaceful place lives mr. Tadao Fukuda, an artisan dedicated to suminagashi, who opens the doors of his studio for those who want to know the technique and see how he works. So I spent some time with him and prepared a suminagashi sheet under his advice. A delight!

Mr. Fukuda is 93 years old and he still works everyday preparing his own natural inks, resin and preparing his own strong washi papers. An unforgettable day for me! He gave me many useful tips that will help me to perfect my own technique and keep practicing.

I have done many suminagashi courses to keep this ancient technique alive, and I have also experimented with it as part of my other works. It is a craft that I keep doing and enjoying.

The method is very simple: it’s about touching the water with ink. We use a brush dipped in sumi ink (calligraphy ink) and another in pine resin (or could be photo-flo or turpentine). With extremely light touches, we we alternate the brushes making concentric circles on the water one after the other. Original Suminagashi style took its form from concentric circles that flow and shape with disturbances in the water. We can manipulate this pattern by blowing or using  a fan. We transfer this pattern by carefully placing a rice or washi sheet of paper on the water surface.

If you have any other questions , contact me anytime! I would be very happy to help you.

Enjoy suminagashi!